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If you need to find out more about mining associations from around the world, this is the place to look. Includes links to international sites.

It was also noticed that a copper price bubble was occurring at the same time as the oil bubble.

Sell Scrap Gold

The LBMA Gold price is set twice daily at and in an auction independently operated and administered by ICE Benchmark Administration(IBA).

Academics point to a large body of evidence in support of EMH, but an equal amount of dissension also exists. Notable investors, such as Warren Buffett and George Soros have consistently beaten the market over long periods of time, which is impossible according to EMH.

Critics of EMH also point to market events where prices rise or fall drastically in manias and panics as evidence that stock prices can significantly deviate from their fair values. European Financial Stability Facility. This was a bail out fund conceived by the EU leaders to help backstop the European banking system during its on-going insolvency crisis.

The fund was initially well received by the markets, but later the initiative was found to be short on detail and legitimacy. The EFSF has to be funded to a certain size to achieve anything, and as further details of the fund emerged investors began to ask if it would achieve anything. A security that tracks an index, a commodity or a basket of assets like an index fund, but trades like a stock on an exchange.

ETFs experience price changes throughout the day as they are bought and sold. There are ETFs for gold and silver investment which The Real Asset Company believes are inferior investment products to owning allocated gold bullion and silver bars. Founded and run by Dr Larry Parks and Jon Parks, FAME is an educational think-tank and lobby group that holds an Austrian economic world view and supports US politicians such as Ron Paul who argue for a return to sound money , and money backed by gold and silver bullion and weights.

Dr Parks is well known to many in the gold investment market, and his views on monetary issues, gold bullion and silver investment are often found on websites providing for gold and silver investors. From the Latin let it be done or by decree. Fiat currency is the currency system on which our economies are now based.

Fiat currency has no intrinsic value; its value is that which is decreed by government, and as a result our monetary system is now built on government debt. Gold and silver backed money, or sound money, is the antithesis of fiat money. Exchange rate regime where the value of a currency is fixed to the value of another currency, or basket of currencies, or even commodities such as gold.

The Classical Gold Standard is an example of a fixed exchange rate. For a detailed history and explanation of the fixing click here. Responsible for monetary policy, financial stability and financial services. Since the role of the Federal Reserve has expanded significantly. It first purchased paper assets in Ben Bernanke is the current Chairman. The Federal Reserve is the single largest gold owner in the world, with a reported holding of over 8, tonnes.

An exchange rate which allows currencies to fluctuate in value on the foreign exchange market, according to demand and supply for that currency in relation to other currencies. A clean float is not interfered with by governments, a dirty float or a managed float is the opposite. Where only a fraction of bank deposits are available as cash and for withdrawal. As banks lend to one another, and each new bank deposit is considered money, banks can be seen as creating money and inflating the money supply.

This is known as the deposit multiplier. A contract between two parties which agrees to an exchange of an asset, of specified size, quality and quantity, at an agreed price for delivery on an agreed, future date. GATA was then formed and formally incorporated in Delaware in Bill Murphy then became chairman and Chris Powell became secretary and treasurer.

GATA has collected and published dozens of documents showing Western treasury and central bank efforts to intervene both openly and surreptitiously against a free market in gold. GATA holds international conferences for gold investors where a range of our favourite gold commentators often speak. To keep up to date with GATA and their fight for a free and fairly set gold price visit their website.

In a gold banking system the banking and payments system depends totally on gold as its basis. Whilst a gold banking system might be close of unimaginable to many individuals today, gold has been at the centre of our financial system since the dawn of civilisation. A range of prominent gold investors advocate a return to a gold banking system and sound money , and believe that this is essential to social progress and the financial system best suited to preserving our liberty and freedom.

To learn more about why those who invest in gold are fans of a gold banking system, read an article on how gold banking would work , by Ralph Hazell CEO. Gold investor with a very strong degree conviction about the strengths and benefits of gold bullion bars as an asset class.

With their enthusiasm to borrow leased gold from the central banks, the bullion banks made spectacular sums of money by executing the Gold Carry Trade. The Gold Carry Trade depended on a spread existing between the Gold Lease Rate and apparent risk free rate of return provided by the US treasury market. Many gold investors sought to expatriate their bullion to countries such as Switzerland and Great Britain.

Order specifically contained a provision that covered the activities of artists, jewellers, dentists, and sign makers among others. This protected gold coin collections and gold numismatics from legal seizure. This episode and state profit has been criticised as on the greatest heists in the history of the United States. For this reason amongst others, American gold investors often prefer to hold their gold bullion off-shore, with Switzerland being a favourite vault locations.

First released by the United States Mint in The actual gold bullion content is 0. Though we advocate keeping some gold and silver bullion coins at home for use in extremis, keeping anything more than a few hundred dollars in gold coin form is not necessarily advisable.

Read our guide to gold investment options for more. The Gold Exchange Standard typically is where the authorities guarantee a fixed exchange rate with other countries on the gold standard. This is said to create a de facto gold standard, however the system is based on the guarantees of the authorities and thus politicians.

The Gold Exchange Standard is often a system that uses silver bullion or silver weights to be used as physical medium of exchange at the point of trade.

During this time devaluing countries such as France and Germany gained a trade advantage, whilst countries like England, which tried to return to the pre-war gold standard, suffered, whilst the United States failed to live up to its international responsibilities.

This is the traditional process by which a reference price of gold is determined twice each working day in the London bullion market. For a full history and explanation of the gold fixing click here.

The Gold Lease Rate is the rate of interest holders of gold bullion demand from would be borrowers of gold. The rate of the Gold Lease Rate is sometimes considered an indicator to the gold market generally. The Gold Lease Rate has sometimes soared from low single figures to double figures upon announcements, like central banks telling the markets they would not continue their policy of gold sales in , that were deemed to restrict supply of bullion to the gold investment market.

The rate of interest borrowers pay on this leased gold is known as the Gold Lease Rate. This book is often cited as a bible of the gold investment market and a must read investment classic. The Canadian Gold Maple Leaf is one of the purest mass produced gold coins in the world with a gold content of. This makes the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf 24 carats for all intensive purposes.

Like many gold coins produced by national mints, only gold bullion mined in Canada can be used in the production of Gold Maple Leafs. The coin was introduced in , a time when the only other widely recognised gold bullion coin was the Krugerrand. Krugerrands had become difficult for westerns to use for gold investment due to the economic boycott of South Africa during apartheid.

There are several gold mining techniques and processes by which gold may be extracted from the earth. These can be divided into three general categories: The gold platinum ratio is often analysed by participants in the precious metals markets, although there is debate about how important an indicator it is to gold and platinum investors.

Platinum is approximately 15 times as rare as gold, and has traditionally traded at a higher price than gold. If the gold platinum ratio is 1, it requires 1 ounce of gold to buy one ounce of platinum.

The gold platinum ration has typically traded above 1, meaning that it required more than one ounce of gold bullion to buy and ounce of platinum.

At its simplest the gold platinum ratio tells you the relative value of the two most valuable precious metals to each other. The platinum price has comfortably traded higher than the gold price for most of the last two decades, but this situation changed since the Credit Crunch of As a results the gold platinum ratio can fall below 1 when economic activity and confidence is low, and gold is relatively more valuable than platinum.

Some investors use the ratio as a technical signal to aid their buying and selling decisions. There was significant market commentary about the opportunities to invest in platinum in and when the gold platinum ratio was below 1 for extended periods of time. The gold platinum ratio hit highs twice at 2. The gold platinum ratio bottomed at 0. The gold price is the rate at which gold trades in relation to a number of fiat currencies.

The most referred to gold price is that quote in dollars per troy ounce. However, gold is not denominated only in US dollars, and is priced in every currency. Investors can buy gold and sell gold in a range of currencies on our platform. To view past and present gold prices click here. Sometimes these sales were more secretive and sometimes more open. After the failure of the London Gold Pool the leading central banks often announced their policies of selling gold publicly in an effort to manage the gold price and keep sentiment in the gold investment market poor.

All of this activity might strike investors as short-sighted given that markets will always have their way, and one of the best articulations and analyses is presented by the late Swiss banker and gold market heavyweight, Ferdinand Lips. Herr Lips argues that gold sales and gold loans by central banks were one of a range of phenomena that contributed to a 20 year bear market in the gold price between and It is notable that by central banks were less inclined to fight the gold price and were net buyers of gold bullion.

The gold silver ratio is often analysed by participants in the precious metals markets, although there is debate about how important an indicator it is to gold and silver investors. If the gold silver ratio is 10, it requires 10 ounces of silver to buy one ounce of gold. When the gold silver ratio registers a high number, like , it means the gold price is high relative to the silver price. During these times gold can be deemed more or overvalued compared to silver. When the gold silver ratio is low, the opposite is the case and silver is relatively more valuable.

At its simplest the gold silver ratio tells you the relative value of the two most important precious metals to each other. In Roman times, the ratio was officially fixed at between 12 — In the USA in , the gold silver ratio was fixed by law at The gold silver ratio averaged 47 during the 20th century.

For more information on the historical gold silver ratio, see the table below with data from Wikipedia. A metallic standard, example of a sound monetary system. Several variations of the gold standard have existed in history. Term used to describe the facility in the Bretton Woods arrangement which allowed foreign banks to exchange their US Dollars for gold.

The Gold Window was closed in by President Nixon. The anchor of gold was not replaced. Good delivery gold must be a of a minimum fineness of Good delivery gold achieves a better resale value due to its verified purity, and is recognised by the international bullion markets.

The artificially overvalued money will in time drive an artificially undervalued money out of circulation and is a consequence of the unnatural price control.

One of the oldest, and perhaps most elegant references to it being by Aristophanes, in his play The Frogs. This play was written around the end of the 5th century BC and contains the verse below:. With the very best and noblest members of her commonweal, just as with our ancient coinage, and the newly-minted gold. Inflation and hyperinflation may be feared by investors generally, but not so much by gold and silver bullion investors.

Gold prices and silver prices tend to perform well during inflation and hyperinflation. Fear of inflationary periods is one of the principle reasons to buy gold or buy silver. Caused by an increase in the money supply. According to von Mises. It is a cog in the complex of policies and institutions which gradually lead toward totalitarianism.

A non-bank entity that trades securities and assets in large enough quantities that they qualify for preferential treatment and lower commissions.

Institutional investors are protected by fewer regulations because it is assumed that they are more knowledgeable and better able to protect themselves. Institutional investors such as pension funds and insurance companies manage huge sums of capital, often many billions, and are deemed the elephants in the financial markets.

Their investment activity can have have a big impact on the markets in which they participate. Few institutional investors invest in gold, and the potential for this institutional money to enter the gold market is cited as a significant potential driver of the gold price. We have looked at how little institutional investors participate in gold investment in one of our research articles. Keynesianism is a macro-economic school of thought originating from the 20th Century economist John Maynard Keynes.

Keynesianism proposes private sector policies and decisions often result in inefficient macro-economic results. What Mr Rickards is focusing on here is one of the most controversial premises on Keynesianism; that money governments inject into the economy can achieve a multiplier effect and thus economic growth.

Unsurprisingly governments that are in favour of stimulus spending cite research that suggests a multiplier effect can be achieved. It might be best to judge that Keynesianism works only in limited conditions, and that therefore it is a special theory more than a general one. It appears that this is an observation not shared by many of the central bankers of the world.

Austrian economists such as Murray N. Rothbard argue that Keynesianism is flawed, inflationary and highly dangerous. The Austrian school argues that Keynesianism is problematic for our liberty believing that money should be sound and circulate freely outside of the designs of politicians and bankers.

Austrian economists deem Keynesianism problematic to the free and fair functioning of a market economy, that exists to serve us. The Krugerrand is a South African gold bullion coin, which is one of the most recognised and famous coins within gold investment. The Krugerrand was first minted in to help market South African gold bullion.

During the s and s a range of Western countries banned the import of the Krugerrand during trade embargoes placed on apartheid-era South Africa. Krugerrands have circulated freely again since the end of apartheid.

The Krugerrand today is still a popular coin and widely held coin within gold investment. In economics laissez-faire is an environment in which private parties are free to trade and transact in the absence of state intervention.

State intervention can take the form of capital controls human and financial , regulations, taxes, tariffs and enforced monopolies. A number of prominent gold investors are intellectually aligned with the Austrian school of economic thought and argue that it is in fact intervention in our money and markets that has caused the gross imbalances in our financial system that manifested themselves in Whilst the heart of these arguments centres around a flawed monetary system and the problematic effects of central banks cited as an apparent cartel gold investors such as Peter Schiff argue that intervention in various markets is responsible for many of our economic woes.

This political interference is said to have distorted market forces and pricing, with the manipulation of interest rates and provision of credit being most obviously visible. Such manipulation of interest rates and credit, for example, enables politicians to purse their goals of increased home-ownership above what would be possible under a normally functioning market.

A government can dictate what medium of exchange can be used for settling trade via legal tender laws. A range of promoters of sound money argue that we should repeal legal tender laws and allow gold and silver backed money to circulate freely as competing currencies. The use of borrowed capital or financial instruments to fund an investment, e.

The more leverage you use top make an investment, the greater exposure you have to movements in the price of the underlying asset. More speculative investors and traders use high degrees of leverage. When used inappropriately, leverage can work to destroy the value of your equity.

Your leverage in this case was We have concerns with the amount of leverage in the financial system , and believe this is one of many reasons to invest in gold, or silver. We also believe that it is better to buy bold bullion without leverage as gold investment can have some bumps in the road too. The LBMA is the London-based trade association that represents the wholesale over-the-counter market for gold and silver in London.

The on-going work of the Association encompasses many areas, among them refining standards, good trading practices and standard documentation. The London gold fixing or gold fix is the traditional procedure which has occurred for over 80 years by which the price of gold is determined twice each working day on the London market.

The London gold fix was designed to fix a gold price for settling large contracts between members of the London bullion market. Outside of this London the gold fixing provides a recognised gold price that is still used as a benchmark for pricing a significant number of gold investment products and derivatives across the global market.

The gold fix is conducted in pounds sterling, US dollars and and the euro. Up until the gold price was fixed once a day, but then a second fixing was introduced at The original five founding bullion bank members were: The current five bullion banks who participate in the fixing as of January are:.

Chairmanship of the meeting was permanently held by Rothschilds but now rotates annually between all five members. At the start of each fixing, the Chairman representing one of the bullion banks announces an opening gold price to the other 4 members. These member then relay this gold price to their customers who are on other lines and indirectly part of the fixing process. The customers of these 4 bullion banks then instruct their representatives to declare themselves as buyers or sellers at that gold price.

If there are both willing buyers and sellers at that price bullion bank members then state the number of gold bars they want to trade. If at the first announced gold price there are only buyers or only sellers, or if the numbers of good delivery bars to be bought or sold does not balance, a more suitable gold price is announced and the procedure starts again until a suitable gold price and balance is achieved.

The Chairman then announces that the gold price is fixed and this data is made available. The fixing process lasts as long as is necessary to establish a gold price that achieves this balance and which satisfies buyers and sellers. The London gold fixing might appear archaic but before the age of electronic platforms being able to centralise liquidity from around the world, the london gold fix was an effective way to bring all the bids and offers from the market to one place and one time in an effort to transparently centralise liquidity in an effort to ensure a fair price discovery process was allowed to set the gold price.

The pooling of gold bullion bar reserves by a group of eight central banks in the United States and seven European countries. Coordinated and concerted gold sales were used to balance spikes in the market price of gold as determined by the London morning gold fixing.

The artificially pegged price of gold was too low, runs on gold, the British pound, and the US dollar occurred, and France decided to withdraw from the pool. The London Gold Pool was abandoned in March The London Gold Pool was followed by further efforts to suppress the gold price with a two-tier system of official exchange and open market transactions, but this gold window was closed in August by President Richard Nixon.

Margin is collateral that the holder of a financial asset has to deposit to cover some of the credit risk of their broker or exchange they are using to make their investment with. Margin is required to finance an investment if the investor has done one or more of the following:. Investors can put up collateral in the form of cash, securities and potentially gold, and it is deposited in a margin account with the broker, exchange, or with a third party custodian. The type of collateral required as margin in the financial markets has come under greater scrutiny since the onset of the Credit Crunch of as financial assets have sometimes failed to perform.

In this backdrop gold bullion has increasingly been considered as collateral. Market failure is a concept or phenomenon within economic theory where the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not efficient.

Market failures are often associated with information asymmetries, non-competitive markets, principal—agent problems, externalities, or public goods. Market failure is often cited as a justification for government intervention in the market or economy. Economists study the causes of market failure, and the potential means to correct such a failure when it occurs. Some types of government interventions, such as taxes, subsidies, bailouts, capital, wage and price controls, and regulations, can lead to a further inefficient allocation of resources, failing to alleviate the perceived limitations of the market.

The Financial Crisis that began in is sometimes cited as a market failure, although some other commentators would urge that this was a banking system run by agents who rationally understood that they would be saved from failure by state intervention if they over extended themselves and mismanaged their businesses.

A market maker is an individual or institution that quotes both a buy and a sell price in a market. Market makers exist to provide liquidity and make a small profit from providing the prices into the marketplace. For example — in the professional bullion markets market makers with efficient access to gold bullion perhaps via gold mines will make a spread around the spot gold price.

After market makers have helped provide the early stage liquidity to get a market going other market participants will bring their liquidity to the market and a fair price will be set through a transparent price discovery process.

In the wholesale financial markets this process leads to an incredibly efficient bid offer spread. We automatically place buy and sell prices into the bullion markets on our platform providing a very efficient spread to buy gold bullion.

Other customers can then add to this liquidity and participate in the price discovery process. Because everyone can set their own buy and sell prices a very fair and efficient gold price is set in our market.

An instrument used to facilitate the sale, purchase or trade of goods between parties. Money, or currency, needs to be two things: Using a medium of exchange allows for greater economic efficiency and freer trade. Before an efficient medium of exchange, more primitive societies used a traditional barter system.

Under a barter system, trade between two parties could only occur if one had and wanted what the other party had and wanted, and vice versa. Gold and silver have acted as efficient mediums of exchange, and an effective store of value. Some argue that sound money backed by gold and silver cannot be an efficient medium of exchange due to the impracticalities of delivering quantities of metal.

However, under a Classical Gold Standard paper notes were backed by metal. In a modern banking system electronic money could also be backed by gold in the same way. This would allow money to perform as an efficient medium of exchange, but also crucially also as an effective store of value.

A monetary regime under which the currency is convertible into one metal at a fixed price. When bank notes, and checkable deposits, exist in the standard then they too are fully convertible into the value of the coins with metal value. The banks, private and governmental, have a contractual obligation to redeem the paper notes and deposits into gold. The volume of everyday means of payment is geared to the volume of gold according to White, You can calculate the gold price that represents the mid-point in our market by doing the same simple calculation.

You will notice that the bid price and offer price in our markets are very close, or very efficient. This is important for your gold investment as it means you benefit from a very efficient spread and pay less to invest in gold. Monetarism is a school of economic thought associated with Milton Friedman that emphasises the role of governments in controlling the amount of money that circulates in an economy.

Monetary economists also believe that the objectives of monetary policy are best met by targeting the growth rate of the money supply. Monetarists and Keynesians are by definition in support of fiat currency. They view the economy as something to be engineered through the manipulation of the money supply, something impossible under a gold standard. Monetarism and Keynesianism still dominate academic thinking which goes a long way to explain contemporary under-appreciation of the benefits of a gold standard and sound money.

In his latest book, Currency Wars , investment banker and risk manager, James Rickards, argues strongly that: Monetarism can be criticised as a way for power to be concentrated by the central bank. Alternatively, the Austrian school of economics abhors central banks being allowed to interfere with our money and its supply.

Rothbard argue that Monetarism is flawed, inflationary and highly dangerous. The Austrian school argues that Monetarism is problematic for our liberty believing that money should be sound and circulate freely outside of the designs of politicians and bankers.

Most governments have given exclusive power to issue or print the national currency to a central bank. The national treasury must pay off government debt either with money it holds or by financing it by issuing new government debt. This new debt is sold to either the bond market directly or the central bank in order to raise the funds required to satisfy the debt. In the later case involving the central bank, the central bank increases the monetary base through the money creation process.

This means of financing government spending is called monetising the debt, or monetisation for short. Monetising debt is a two-step process where the government issues debt to finance its spending and the central bank buys the debt, increasing the base money supply within the economy.

A medium of exchange used by humans to facilitate trade as an improvement from a primitive barter economy. Humans have typically used commodity money, either as the commodity unit itself or as paper backed by certain amounts of commodity. Whilst many commodities have been used as money including pepper corns in the Middle East, Whale bone coins by the Inuit, and bundles of tobacco in the early American States, the majority of human history has seen gold and silver used as money.

Gold and silver coins or bullion have been used in sound money systems. This form of monetary system is how the Classical Gold Standard operated from to The opposite form of money is paper money that is not backed by anything tangible.

This is known as fiat money , and has value only by government decree. As a result fiat money is only valued whilst investors and savers have trust and faith in the issuing government.

History has shown that paper money systems last on average only 40 years, and are prone to being tampered with and devalued by the issuing government or authority. Paper money systems are inherently inflationary. The money supply or money stock, is the total amount of money available in an economy at a given time. Money supply data are recorded and published by the government or the central bank. Analysts monitor changes in money supply because of its effects on the price level, inflation and the business cycle.

There is strong empirical evidence of a direct relation between long-term price inflation and money-supply growth. This is why some analysts find recent money printing in response to the Credit Crunch so concerning.

The often cited example is Zimbabwe which saw rapid increases in its money supply and also saw rapid increases in prices hyperinflation. One of the traditional ways to value gold investments is to value public stocks of gold bullion against the current money supply.

A range of money supply inputs can be used M1, M2, M3, etc. This tells you what the gold price would need to be to cover the obligations of the country in question. Moral hazard refers to a situation where a party makes a decision about how much risk to take, while another party bears the costs if things go wrong.

This could be where the party insulated from risk behaves differently from how it would if it were fully exposed to the risk. Moral hazard arises because individuals or institutions do not take full responsibility for their actions.

Some commentators believe there is a chronic lack of responsibility in the financial system today because of the distortions of moral hazard and lack of accountability. Coins which differ from bullion coins due to their rarity, provenance, appearance and condition. Therefore, they are often valued above the value of their precious metal content.

Generally valued higher than bullion coins, numismatics can be made of gold or silver bullion. Although for investors with a deep knowledge of gold and silver coins investing in gold or silver numismatics can be lucrative, for investors without this knowledge such gold or silver investments are fraught with risk.

This makes investments in gold or silver numismatics similar to investing in stamps or other collectible rarities. Some people do make money trading these coins, but typically they are experienced brokers and dealers who can buy at a steep discount and sell at a large mark up.

For more information on these issues try our guide to gold investment. The offer in our silver market is the rate at which participants you and any other clients in the market are willing to accept to sell physical silver bullion.

A financial instrument that carries the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell another financial instrument or asset at a specific price within a specific period of time. Options contracts are traded in the over-the-counter market or the exchange-traded market by banks, brokers and other large financial institutions. There are options contracts for speculators in gold and silver that are traded on international exchanges around the world.

These contracts can be used by miners and other businesses within the gold and silver markets to hedge their exposure to the gold or silver price.

The dates of gold and silver options expire each quarter, and the run up to these dates are keenly noted by market participants. Gold options, are like gold futures , in that they are derivatives linked to the gold price. As such gold options contracts are sometimes known as paper gold.

This is because you do not own anything tangible, like a bar of gold bullion. Gold options contracts expose investors to counterparty risk and are complicated financial instruments. As such many market commentators deem gold options a less suitable gold investment than physical gold bullion. You can read more about these issues in our gold investment guide. Paper gold investments are investments where the investor does not own physical gold bullion , but a paper claim to gold bullion or an instrument linked to the gold price.

Paper gold is often deemed an inferior gold investment than holding allocated gold bullion in a secure vault. You can read more about paper gold versus physical gold in our guide to gold investment. Paper silver investments are investments where the investor does not own physical silver bullion , but a paper claim to silver bullion or an instrument linked to the silver price.

Paper silver is often deemed an inferior silver investment than holding allocated silver bullion in a secure vault. These countries debt levels have become a great source of concern for the success of the Euro currency and the EU itself. Pound cost averaging PCA is buying a fixed sterling amount of a particular asset on a regular schedule regardless of the price. PCA has often been recommended as a considered and useful way to buy gold bullion at a lower average gold price, and buy silver bars at a lower average silver price.

Read more about how PCA relates to gold and silver investment here. Government mandated minimum or maximum prices that can be charged for certain goods and services.

Governments sometimes implement price controls when prices on essential items, such as food or oil, are rising problematically. Economists mostly believe that price controls are counter productive and seldom accomplish what they were intended to do. There have been price controls associated with the gold price in the past when gold was confiscated by the US government and US citizens were given a government determined price for their gold bullion.

The price discovery process is where the price of an asset in the marketplace is determined through the interactions of buyers and sellers. Price discovery is different from valuation. The price discovery process needs to function freely in a well functioning market. For years some precious metals investors have raised grievances about an improper price discovery process occurring for gold and silver bullion.

Investors, and agencies such as GATA , argue that the price discovery process has been improperly happening in the paper gold and silver markets which bear no reality to the physical bullion market.

These investors urge the gold price therefore does not reflect fair value for physical gold or silver bullion. The same is said to occur in the silver market which sets the silver price. These investors urge that the paper and physical gold and silver markets are very different beasts, and that one should not set the price of the other. Some professional investors, such as Eric Sprott , have called out to suppliers of gold and silver bullion to act responsibly to help the physical markets reassert there apparent natural place of the physical market in price discovery for precious metals.

The above mentioned concerns about the paper markets setting a price that does not reflect fair value for gold and silver bullion do not even take into account what has been termed manipulation by the central and bullion banks over the years.

Gold market heavyweights, such as the late Ferdinand Lips , have studied with great consideration the effect of planned and telegraphed gold sales and gold loans by central banks, and the opportunities that the Gold Carry Trade presented to bullion banks when the Gold Lease Rate was lower than the risk free rate during the s and s. These factors are also deemed to have had an unnatural effect on the gold price. Whilst debates about the issues above will continue, we believe it is safest to buy physical gold and silver bullion.

The price level is the average of current prices across goods and services produced in the economy. It refers to any static picture of the price of a given good, service or asset. The price level is of great importance to Keynesian and Monetary economists, and a reasonably stable price level is the accepted definition of good money. Austrian economists believe that the belief in the price level, as a measure of good money, has been the source of many dangerous policies and ideas.

When there is an expanding money supply, it is clear that the demand for money also rises therefore the price level may remain fairly stable. This leads macroeconomists to believe that money injections are non-disruputive — a dangerous misconception.

These money injections do not mean the rising supply and demand for money meet in the middle, as monetarists assume; this would be practically impossible. Governments no longer need to physically print money in order to inject cash into the economy. Quantitative Easing is an electronic version of money printing. The central bank buys assets which are typically made up of government bonds, securities, commercial paper and corporate bonds.

The money used by the Central Bank to buy these assets is un-backed and created especially for this purpose. Ratings agencies, sometimes called Credit Rating Agencies CRA , are institutions that provide credit ratings for issuers of certain types of debt obligations, as well as the debt instruments themselves.

On some occasions the owners or payers of the underlying debt are also given ratings. These agencies assign a credit rating using their own scoring systems. Investors are then meant to use these ratings to assist their investments and allocation of capital. The value of ratings agencies has been widely questioned since the Credit Crunch. Credit ratings, in a range of circumstances, had been found to be highly inaccurate.

The ratings agencies have been accused of anti-competitive practices, being affect by conflicts of interest, and have been subject to Federal investigation and much regulatory supervision. More recently the European sovereign debt crisis has once more exposed rating agencies as being at times highly inaccurate in their ratings of debt and securities. Investors are best described as taking credit ratings with a pinch of salt, and many prominent investors describe these agencies as laggards who are generally late, sometimes years late, in understanding market reality.

A range of high profile gold investors, such as Peter Schiff, Jim Rogers and Bill Bonner, are also highly critical of ratings agencies. A foreign currency held by central banks and other major financial institutions. A large percentage international trade in certain commodities, such as gold, silver, oil and iron ore, may be priced in the reserve currency, causing other countries to hold this currency to pay for these goods.

Holding currency reserves can reduce exchange rate risk, as the purchasing nation will not have to exchange their currency for the current reserve currency in order to make the purchase. The US dollar has acted as the international reserve currency since it overtook the pound in importance to international trade. Academics often cite this historical usurpation of the pound as occurring from s to s. Although gold and silver are traded in many currencies the reference gold price or silver price investors will be most familiar with is quoted in dollars per troy ounce.

The opposite to fractional reserve banking. Each loan made must be fully backed by a deposit. A central bank regulation which states what fraction of deposits commercial banks must keep as reserves.

Some investors believe that gold bullion can be considered as safe haven from declining confidence in the banking and currency system. Silver investment is sometimes considered in a similar light but with greater attendant volatility. Seigniorage is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce it. The term refers to the economic cost of producing a currency. If the seigniorage is positive, then the government will make an economic profit; a negative seigniorage will result in an economic loss.

Most currency issuers enjoy a positive seigniorage, and the higher denomination of note issued the greater the seigniorage can be. The Euro note is the largest currency unit in circulation at the time of writing and brings the European Central Bank significant profits each year. The professional silver investment market accepts as good delivery, silver bars of the following specification:. Silver investor with a very strong degree conviction about the strengths and benefits of silver bullion as an asset class.

First released by the United States Mint in , it is struck only as a coin of one-troy ounce silver bullion. The Silver Eagle has a face value of one dollar and is guaranteed to contain silver bullion of The silver content, weight, and purity are certified by the United States Mint.

The Silver Eagle has been produced at three mints: Though we advocate keeping some gold and silver bullion coins at home for use in extremis, keeping anything more than a few hundred dollars in silver coin form is not necessarily advisable.

For more substantial silver bullion investment we advocate that investors buy silver bullion that is stored in professional market vaults. This includes leading silver mining houses, refiners, bullion suppliers, manufacturers of silver products and wholesalers of silver investment products. For example — supply and demand data for silver bullion is essential to accurately understanding dynamics within the silver market. A more precise use of data from the Silver Institute would be in our analysis of how participants like the silver miners might be acting to support the physical silver market and thus the silver price over the long term.

The face value of the 1 oz coin is 5 Canadian dollars, which gives the Silver Maple Leaf the highest currency value within internationally recognised silver bullion coins. The silver bullion purity of the coin is Silver is mostly mined as a secondary product from the extraction of other elements. The silver price is the rate at which silver trades in relation to a number of fiat currencies. The most referred to silver price is that quote in dollars per troy ounce.

However, silver is not denominated only in US dollars, and is priced in every currency. Investors can buy silver and sell silver in a range of currencies on our platform. To view past and present silver prices click here. Also known as hard money, honest money, commodity money. A form of money which is fully backed by a tangible commodity e. It has intrinsic value. Fully insured next-day delivery or same-day collection on all orders. Pricing shown is for single units.

Volume pricing is available on some items. Please view the details of the item to see volume pricing where available. We have received over 1, reviews on FreeIndex and with over 40 years' experience in the gold industry we are proud of our reputation as a reliable, honest and trustworthy service.

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