PSI 20 Index
Here's what you're missing out on! In Brazil, there is no legal restriction on naming a newborn child, unless the given name has a meaning that can humiliate or embarrass those who bear it.
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This Link May be Unsafe. Younger generations tend to use both the father's and the mother's family name, thus giving four names to their sons like "Paulo Salim Lutfalla Maluf" or "Maria Heiko Sugahara Uemura". Before Romans entered the territory of present-day Portugal, the native people identified themselves by a single name, or that name followed by a patronym. The names were clearly ethnic and some typical of a tribe or region. A slow adoption of the Roman onomastic occurred after the end of the first century AD, with the adoption of a Roman name or of the tria nomina: Patronymics are names derived from the father's given name that, many centuries ago, began to be used as surnames.
They are a common form of surnames in the lands where Portuguese is spoken and also have developed in many other languages. Some surnames that originated in this way do not end in es ; instead they end in iz , like Muniz son of Monio and Ruiz, son of Ruy , or ins , like Martins son of Martim. It is rather improbable that those are patronymics; more likely they originated with people with no surnames, who were given two names for the sake of enhanced individuality. One can find today in Portugal and Brazil people who still use surnames that for other people are just given names, although they were passed from parents to sons for generations, such as Valentim, Alexandre, Fernando, Afonso note the family name de Melo Afonso and Antonio note de Melo Antonio.
Names like Dinis , Duarte , Garcia and Godinho were originally given names, but today they are used in Brazil almost exclusively as surnames, although Duarte and Dinis are still common given names in Portugal.
Matronymics surnames derived from female given names are not used in Portuguese. Surnames such as "Catarino" from Catarina and "Mariano" meaning related to Maria are rather references to Catholic saints probably originating with the practice of giving a child the name of the saint of the day in which he or she was born. Some former patronymics are not easily recognized, for two main reasons. A large number of surnames are locative , related to the geographical origin of a person, such as the name of a village, town, city, land, river.
Not all villages and towns that were the basis of surnames still exist, have kept the same name, or are inhabited today. Some names specify a location of the family's house within the village: In some cases, the family name may not be a locative, but an indication of ownership. Names of trees or plantations are also locative surnames, originally related to identifying a person who lived near or inside a plantation, an orchard or a place with a characteristic kind of vegetation.
In the old documentations of the Portuguese language also appears as a variant of Pedreira or Pedreiro and this is "site covered with stones".
Surnames with religious meanings or connotations are common. It is possible that some of these originated from an ancestor who converted to Catholicism and intended or needed to demonstrate his new faith. Another possible source of religious names were orphans who were abandoned in the churches and raised in Catholic orphanages by priests and nuns.
They were usually baptized with a name related to the date near when they were found or baptized. Another possible source is when previous religious given names expressing a special devotion by the parents or the god-parents, or the child's birth date were adopted as family names. A surname such as Xavier could have originated from someone baptized after Saint Francis Xavier or from the old Portuguese family Xavier.
Some surnames are possible descriptions of a peculiar characteristic of an ancestor, originating from nicknames. These include names like Peixoto "little fish", applied to a nobleman who used a fish to trick his enemies during a siege [ citation needed ] , Peixe fish, i. Portuguese surnames that originated from professions or occupations are few, such as Serrador sawman , Monteiro hunter of the hills or woods guard , Guerreiro warrior , Caldeira cauldron, i.
Some Portuguese names originated from foreigners who came to live in Portugal or Brazil many centuries ago. They are so ancient that, despite their known foreign origin, they are an integrated part of Portuguese and Brazilian cultures.
It is a popular belief [ citation needed ] that the Jews living in Portugal up to , when they were forced to choose between conversion or expulsion, substituted their surnames with the names of trees that do not bear edible fruits, such as Carvalho oak tree and Junqueira reed, bulrush, junk. However, even these names were already used by Christians during the Middle Ages, these surnames were mostly used by the converted Jews conversos, new Christians during the inquisition.
The rationale is that Jews would adopt as a family name an apparently Christian concept as a deception. In fact, they were choosing the most incorporeal Trinity person, that is, the one that offended least their secret Jewish faith. This theory is not totally unfounded, as there is evidence  that the cult around the Holy Spirit flourished after , especially among New Christians. The Portuguese Jews living in Portugal up to bore given names that could distinguish them from the Christian population.
A few names are not distinct from old Portuguese surnames like Camarinha, Castro, Crespim. Some scholars proved [ citation needed ] that the converted Portuguese Jews usually chose a patronymic as their new surname and, when the conversion was not forced, they would choose to bear the surname of their godfather. The Belmonte Jews crypto-Jews from the Belmonte region in Portugal also bear surnames that cannot be used to distinguish them from the older Catholic Portuguese families.
Using tree names as surnames was not a common practice among converted or non-converted Portuguese Jews, before or after their expulsion in These are some most frequent surnames in Portugal: According to a large scale study of names extracted from various social networking websites, the most common surnames in Brazil are: Until abolition of slavery, slaves did not have surnames, only given names.
While slavery persisted, slaves needed to have distinct names only within the plantation fazenda or engenho to which they belonged. It was a common practice to name free slaves after their former owners, so all their descendants have the Portuguese surnames of their former owner. Indigenous people who were not slaves also chose to use their godparents' surnames as their own. Religious names are also more common among people with African or native Brazilian ancestors than among people with only European ancestors.
A slave who had just a given name like Francisco de Assis from Saint Francis of Assisi could use the partial name de Assis as a surname, since the connective — de — gives the appearance of surname. The practice of naming Afro-Brazilians with religious surnames was proved even by some indirect approaches. Medical researchers demonstrated that there is a statistical correlation between a religious name and genetic diseases related to African ancestry such as the sickle-cell disease.
Due to miscegenation , the correlation exists even among white people that have religious surnames. It was also common to name indigenous people and freed slaves with surnames which were already very common such as Silva or Costa. That is why [ citation needed ] Silva is the most common surname in Brazil. In the years following Brazil's independence, some old Brazilians families changed their surnames to surnames derived from Tupian languages as a patriotic way to emphasize the new Fatherland.
Some of these names are still spelled with Portuguese old orthography , but some are spelled according to the new rules. These names, following the old orthography , include:.
Due to emigration, nowadays one can find these surnames even in Portugal. Some Brazilian surnames, like some old Portuguese surnames, are locative surnames that denote the original place where the ancestor who first used it was born or lived.
Like surnames that originated from words, this practice started during the patriotic years that followed Brazil's Independence. Some of these are toponyms derived from Tupian languages such as:.
Due to immigration, nowadays one can find these surnames even in Portugal. Some locative surnames derived indirectly as the result of its incorporation by the family after the Imperial nobility title of an ancestor.
During the times of Emperor Pedro II, non-hereditary nobilities titles would be granted to notable persons, generally statesmen. The title but no lordship would be granted and named after a location, as in Europe, generally owned by the notable. At their death, the family in order to maintain the reference to the title would adopt them, to the point that many Brazilians still believe these are hereditary.
Some misspelled foreign surnames are hardly recognized by speakers of the original language such as Collor from German Koeller , Chamareli from Italian Sciammarelli and Branquini from Italian Bianchini.
Thus there are extensively adapted or misspelled foreign surnames used by Brazilian descendants of non-Portuguese immigrants. Due to emigration, nowadays one can find these misspelled surnames even in their original country. Although not so widely used as in the United States , immigrants used to change their surname to show assimilation or to avoid social discrimination in Brazil.
This practice was most used during World War II by Italian immigrants because Italy was an enemy country for a few years. The new Portuguese surname was generally chosen based on the original meaning of the foreign surname Olivetto , Olivetti or Oliva sometimes changed to Oliveira. Sometimes the new surname had only a phonetical resemblance with the foreign one the Italian surnames Livieiro and Salviani sometimes were changed to Oliveira and Silva.
Although an American president could be called Bill Clinton or Jimmy Carter by the press, this practice was used in Brazil as a much more respectful treatment and never in a formal way. Some sociologists [ who? In Brazil, descendants of famous people sometimes use a surname composed of both the given name and the surname of their ancestor, like Ruy Barbosa , Vital Brasil , Miguel Pereira and Lafayette Rodrigues families.
Such practice allows them to be easily recognized by other people as descendants of their famous ancestor. Such a pattern is rare. In Portugal , newborn children can only be named from a list of given names  permitted by Civil Law.
Names are required to be spelt according to the rules of Portuguese orthography and to be a part of Portuguese-language onomastic traditionally names in Portugal were based on the calendar of saints. Thus in Portugal the given names show little variation, as traditional names are favoured over modern ones.
If one of the parents is not Portuguese or has double citizenship, foreign names are allowed, as long as the parents present a document proving the requested name is allowed in their country of origin.
In the past, immigrant children who were born abroad were required to adopt a Portuguese name in order to become Portuguese citizens — an example is tennis player Michelle de Brito , whose legal name is Micaela. This practise no longer applies. In Brazil, there is no legal restriction on naming a newborn child, unless the given name has a meaning that can humiliate or embarrass those who bear it.
Brazilians living far from the big cities or lower-class people are prone to create new given names, joining together the given names of the parents or classical given names, changing the spelling of foreign names or even using foreign suffixes that — they may believe — give a sophisticated or modern sound to the new name e. Maurren — from Maureen -, Deivid — from David, Robisson.
See also Spelling section of this article. At this time, Brazilian people started to use Native Brazilian names as given names.
Some are among the most popular until nowadays. According to the Chicago Manual of Style , Portuguese and Lusophone names are indexed by the final element of the name, and that this practice differs from the indexing of Spanish and Hispanophone names. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.
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