Benjamin Franklin

Abstract: This article deals with the problems in translating literary prose and reveals some pertinent solutions and also concentrates on the need to expand the perimeters of Translation Studies.

A nd now for some Reviews and commentaries:. Wie wärs damit das es die 5 Wunden von Josua representiert? Instead, he would work on one and only one each week "leaving all others to their ordinary chance.

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Agenturleben Bei exito arbeiten wir in einem sehr dynamischen, internationalen Umfeld und pflegen eine besondere Unternehmenskultur. Unser freundschaftlicher Umgang und die gleichzeitige Leistungsorientierung stellen für uns keinen Widerspruch dar.

Sie ist ein Geschenk Frankreichs an die USA und sollte ursprünglich zur Hundertjahrfeier der amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitserklärung von vollendet werden. Im Laufe der Zeit hat das Kupfer eine grüne Patinaschicht gebildet. Der steinerne Sockel beherbergt ein Museum und wurde auf einem sternförmigen Fort errichtet, das der ehemaligen Befestigungsanlage am gleichen Ort nachempfunden wurde.

Mit ihrer rechten Hand hält sie eine Fackel mit einer goldbeschichteten Flamme in die Höhe. Die Statue ist mit einer siebenstrahligen Krone geschmückt, in der sich 25 Fenster befinden. August benannte Eisenhower die Insel um. Es wurde nach Plänen des Architekten Daniel Burnham gebaut. Bereits kurz nach seiner Fertigstellung diente das Gebäude als Motiv für eine der bekanntesten Aufnahmen des amerikanischen Fotografen Alfred Stieglitz.

Von seiner Fertigstellung bis war es das höchste Gebäude der Welt. Mai war es wieder das höchste Gebäude in New York City. Stockwerk, der obersten Etage, ist eine weitere Aussichtsplattform. Diese ist jedoch im Inneren des Gebäudes gelegen. Zu besonderen Feiertagen und Anlässen erstrahlt die Turmspitze in verschiedenfarbigem Lichterglanz.

Die verschiedenen kulturellen Veranstaltungen und Vorführungen sind kostenlos. September stark in Mitleidenschaft gezogen. Die Reparaturarbeiten im Wintergarten sind im September abgeschlossen worden. Der Meter hohe Wolkenkratzer gehört zu einer neuen Generation Hochhäusern in New York, die sehr modern und umweltfreundlich gebaut sind.

Das höchste Gebäude der Vereinigten Staaten ist das am 3. September , waren Meter hoch. Der Hearst Tower , von Norman Foster entworfen, mit einer eigenwilligen Fassade ist das erste Hochhaus, bei dessen Bau besonders ökologische Gesichtspunkte im Vordergrund standen. Der Architekt Cass Gilbert entwarf das neugotische Gebäude Auffällig ist die nach oben gestufte Spitze, die eine Uhr und ein Globus krönen.

Mit seiner Fertigstellung anno ist es der erste Gebäudekomplex, dessen Bauarbeiten nach den Terroranschlägen abgeschlossen wurden, und eines der modernsten Zentren. Über sechs Stockwerke hoch erstreckt sich das prunkvolle Atrium. In den unteren Stockwerken des Gebäudes befinden sich verschiedene Boutiquen, Juweliere und weitere exklusive Geschäfte für die gehobenen Ansprüche, in den oberen Etagen liegen die Apartments. In den Zwillingstürmen befinden sich pompöse Zimmer für Wohlhabende und berühmte Persönlichkeiten.

Das Woolworth Building Broadway wurde vollendet und war bis das höchste Gebäude der Welt. Der vom Architekten Cass Gilbert entworfene, elegante gotische Wolkenkratzer wird von einem Pyramidendach gekrönt und ist mit vielen Tierornamenten verziert.

Die Brooklyn Bridge wurde vollendet und war zur damaligen Zeit die längste Hängebrücke der Welt. Sein Sohn vollendete das Werk. Vom höher gelegenen Gehweg sind die Skyline von Manhattan in der Ferne und die gotischen Bögen der Brückenpfeiler aus nächster Nähe zu sehen.

Sehenswert sind die Lagerhäuser aus den Jahren bis mit ihren schön verzierten, gusseisernen Fassaden. Zahlreiche von diesen Gebäuden werden heute als Lofts oder Ateliers genutzt. Das Gusseisen entdeckte man auf der Suche nach Möglichkeiten, Gebäude schnell und relativ kostengünstig zu bauen. John the Divine mit ihrer Mischung aus romanischen und gotischen Stilelementen. Die Bauarbeiten an der Cathedral of Saint John the Divine begannen , wurden bei Kriegsausbruch unterbrochen und Anfang der er Jahre trotz zahlreicher Kontroversen und Geldsorgen sporadisch wiederaufgenommen.

Erst zwei Drittel der Kathedrale sind fertiggestellt. Pelton, der Bau dauerte von bis und Geldgeber war John D. Die Bauarbeiten an der neogotischen St. Das Bauwerk verbindet einerseits die Romantik des Reisens und andererseits die Historie eines prächtigen Bahnhofsgebäudes aus der damaligen Zeit.

Nachdem der Grand Central Terminal lange nur zur Durchreise genutzt worden war, präsentiert er sich nach umfangreicher Renovierung in den er Jahren heute mit vielen exklusiven Geschäften und Restaurants.

An der Gewölbedecke funkeln über 2. Ihr Status als einer der weltweit führenden Bibliotheken wird belegt durch den Besitz von beispielsweise einer Gutenberg-Bibel , einer Ausgabe der Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica und der handgeschriebenen Unabhängigkeitserklärung von Thomas Jefferson.

Die ersten Bücher stammen von Johann Jakob Astor — Hardenbergh zwischen und entworfen und in einer damals noch ärmlichen Gegend gebaut. Es ist eines der wenigen noch erhaltenen Beispiele des neugotischen Baustils in New York.

Als Signum ist über dem Haupteingang die Natursteinplastik eines Indianerkopfes eingelassen. Seine Witwe Yoko Ono wohnt dort noch heute. Der Central Park wurde als Landschaftspark eingerichtet und wird seitdem auch als Volkspark genutzt. In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten ist der Central Park zu einer imposanten Parkanlage angewachsen.

In den er Jahren noch sollte das Gebiet oberhalb der th Street wegen seiner Nähe zum Stadtteil Harlem und dessen ehemals hoher Kriminalitätsrate gemieden werden.

In der Parkanlage selbst befinden sich neben dem Denkmal des schwedischen Ingenieurs und Erfinders John Ericsson noch zahlreiche weitere Denkmäler. Der Park hat seinen Namen von den Geschützen , die einst hier postiert waren, um den Hafen zu verteidigen.

Durch Verlandung und Aufschüttung ist die heutige Küstenlinie jedoch etwas vorgerückt. Der Bronx Zoo entstand Im Bronx Zoo findet man viele Tierarten, die in freier Wildbahn schon ausgestorben sind. Edgar Allan Poes letztes Wohnhaus ist heute eine liebevoll restaurierte und allgemein zugängliche Gedenkstätte. Er lebte hier im damaligen Vorort Fordham von bis Auf einer ehemaligen Hochbahntrasse im Westen von Manhattan entsteht seit eine Parkanlage.

Der erste Abschnitt wurde der Öffentlichkeit am 8. Juni zugänglich gemacht, der zweite folgte am 7. Der letzte Teil zwischen 30th und 34th Street befindet sich noch in Planung. Zu den bekannteren der zahlreichen professionellen Sportmannschaften in der New York Metropolitan Area zählen unter anderem:. Sie gewannen die World Series , die höchste Trophäe des amerikanischen Baseballs , bisher 27 Mal, zuletzt In New York City fanden fünf Schachweltmeisterschaften ganz oder teilweise statt: Januar dort eröffnet, acht Jahre später verlor Steinitz seinen Titel gegen Emanuel Lasker , nachdem der erste Teil des Titelkampfes erneut in New York City ausgetragen worden war.

Zu den vielen jährlichen Festivitäten in New York gehört das chinesische Neujahrsfest , es beginnt im Januar oder Februar und dauert zehn Tage. Die Stadt besitzt etwa Die Restaurants der verschiedenen Bevölkerungsgruppen warten unter anderem mit italienischen, koscheren , asiatischen und indischen Speisen auf.

Eine besondere Spezialität aus der jüdischen Tradition ist das sogenannte Knisch in etwa Kartoffeltasche , das an fast jedem Deli erstanden werden kann.

Bill Hyers, Berater des Bürgermeisters Bill de Blasio sagte , dass der wirtschaftliche Druck zu einer kollektiven Besorgnis führe, die in der ganzen Stadt beinahe wie Pheromone zu riechen sei. Zu den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbereichen zählen unter anderem die chemische und die elektrotechnische Industrie, die Druckindustrie , die Textilindustrie sowie der Dienstleistungsbereich.

Ihr Grundstein wurde am Damals wurden gerade einmal fünf Wertpapiere in New York gehandelt: Heute sind an der NYSE etwa 2. Zahlreiche Weltkonzerne haben ihren Hauptsitz in New York. Weiterhin ist die Stadt der Sitz vieler Anwaltskanzleien von internationalem Renommee. New York ist ein bedeutender Medienstandort. In Brooklyn und der Bronx befinden sich ausgedehnte Hafenanlagen , Lagerhäuser und Betriebe der verarbeitenden Industrie. Über den Flughafen John F. Der Tourismus spielt für die Weltstadt gleichfalls eine sehr bedeutende Rolle.

New Yorks heutige wirtschaftliche Bedeutung hängt mit seiner Nutzung für den Warenumschlag und historisch mit dem Personentransport auf Schiffen zusammen. Millionen von Einwanderern landeten hier und passierten seine Anlagen, von denen Ellis Island eine relativ neue ist. New York ist durch zahlreiche Autobahnen mit dem Rest des Landes verbunden. Für die Anfahrt mit dem Auto gibt es verschiedene Möglichkeiten: Besonders an den Tunneln und Brücken kommt es immer wieder zu Staus, auch weil dort in der Regel Maut kassiert wird.

In New York befinden sich zwei Flughäfen: Der Flughafen Teterboro wird durch seine Nähe zur Stadt bevorzugt für den Geschäftsreiseflugverkehr genutzt. In New York befinden sich zwei wichtige Bahnhöfe für den Zugverkehr: Grand Central Terminal und Pennsylvania Station.

Der Grand Central Terminal wurde am 2. Der Bahnhof liegt auf zwei Ebenen, 41 Gleise enden auf der oberen, 26 auf der unteren Ebene. Die Ausnahme bildet hier das unterste Downtown, wo dieses Gittersystem endet. Bezüglich der benutzten Verkehrsmittel ist New York eine sehr unamerikanische Stadt, denn die meisten Bewohner benutzen öffentliche Verkehrsmittel. Er war kein Kaufmann, eher Techniker und Hinrich Ahrens war mit seiner Leistung anfangs nicht zufrieden. Er erwirbt sich das Vertrauen seiner Chefs und erledigt neben anderen Arbeiten allmählich auch die Geschäfte der Firma mit der japanischen Regierung.

In dieser Zeit leitete M. Bair die Firma in Japan und Hinrich wickelte Aufträge aus Japan und Besuche von Lieferanten ab, stellte einen zweiten Teilhaber, Eberhard Schmid ein, gründete eine Filiale in Berlin und besuchte die Weltausstellung in Wien , erst danach reiste er wieder nach Japan zurück. Bair reiste nun Ende Januar nach Europa, wo sich auch noch E. Schmid aufhielt und gemeinsam verlegten sie die Filiale von Berlin nach London.

Von bis etwa Mitte leitete H. Ahrens die Geschäfte von London. Bereits zu dieser Zeit traten gravierende Differenzen zwischen Ahrens und Bair auf, die Mitte zur Trennung führten.

Ahrens sah die Chancen seiner Firma eher in Geschäften mit Privatleuten, Bair hielt an Geschäften mit der japanischen Regierung fest und in dieser Form setzten sie ihre Geschäfte getrennt unter H.

Hinrich Ahrens blieb aber weiterhin Vertreter für Krupp in Japan. Ob zu diesem Zeitpunkt auch E. Er wurde auch nicht in H. Ahrens' Verfügungen zum Testament über die Firma erwähnt. Ahrens für 3 Jahre und H. Anfang entschied sich Hinrich Ahrens, nach Europa zurückzukehren, um die Firma von London zu leiten. Als Hinrich von bis in Europa weilte, lernte er auch Hermina Mosle kennen, die er am Sie wurde am Vermutlich kümmerte sich seine Frau Hermina auch um die Pflege von Bekanntschaften.

Zu japanischen Freunden der Ahrens' zählten u. Sie hatten vier Kinder: Sie hatten 3 Töchter und 2 Söhne, Ehe wurde geschieden. Main, beigesetzt in Oberursel - 1. Im Juli zwangen ihn dringende Aufgaben nach Japan. Von dieser Reise kehrt er nicht wieder nach Hause. Er starb an Cholera in Yokohama am Falls Hermina jedoch erneut heiratete, verliert sie ihr jährliches Erbe sowie alle anderen Erbanteile, die auf ihre gemeinsamen Kinder übergehen.

Im November zieht Hermina mit ihren Kindern von London nach Leipzig, bald war sie mit Carl Eduard Melchers eng befreundet und sie heirateten am Sie starb am Zusammenfassung der geschäftliche Aktivitäten der Firma H.

Martin - Organisierung von Spezialisten für diverse Branchen z. Peil wird die Firma H. Ahrens im Oktober Kunstgegenstände Lackwaren, Keramiken, etc. Bing war mit der Schwester von M.

Bair verheiratet, der erste Export von S. Bing lief über H. Das Exportgeschäft wird im Laufe der Zeit mehr und mehr zugunsten des Imports reduziert. Diese drei übernahmen die Firma und benennen sie um in H. Es war ein neues Unternehmen, das durch "Fremde" geleitet wurde und durch einen Wechsel in der Unternehmensführung gekennzeichnet war. Hake die Gruppe der Teilhaber. Bis verlassen auch E. Hofmann die Firma, auch neue Mitarbeiter kommen und gehen.

Trotz des Wechsels in der Leitung blieb die Firma als vertrauenswürdiges Unternehmen bis zum Ende des 2. WK bestehen und wurde erst durch die amerikanische Besatzung liquidiert.

Regarding his later commercial activities in Japan, however, only two brothers were of importance: At first Hinrich attends the primary school at Falkenberg and aged 13 years he joined a private school of a theologian at Lilienthal; at this school also French and English was being taught.

He was interested in the profession of a merchant and in he started an apprenticeship with the company of August Korff in Bremen. The apprenticeship ended at Easter , Hinrich is 19 years old and he wanted to work abroad.

At first he tried to find a job in St. Petersburg, but decided soon to go to London arriving there in June Afterwards he tried another start in Chile and Bolivia and eventually he decided to go to Japan -- he embarked in San Francisco and on October 31, he arrived in Yokohama.

Since he also knew the importance of a communication in the national language he started to learn Japanese and soon he mastered this language in speaking and writing due to his industriousness.

On January 1, he opened a small shop in Tokyo, according to his own statement the "first European shop in Tokyo". The address is not handed down, it was a kind of retail trade; he bought European goods in Yokohama and sold these in Tokyo through his shop. As the business developed well, he looked for a partner. The first partner, Mr Witte, was a real mistake; when entering Germany at the end of he was arrested.

However, this did not have any influence on his success. On June 3, he leased 41 Tsukiji, Tokyo and started with the construction of several buildings. The neighbouring lot 23 leased Martin Michael Bair , who also started with the construction of a building and both formed a partnership. At the beginning of January the buildings were ready to move in.

Two residential buildings, a store and a shop had been set up. The address read "Edo 41". The main chief of the company remained Hinrich Ahrens, both were likewise active in the development of the company - their knowledge of the Japanese language contributed to the business success.

Bair was appointed consulate agent in Tokyo, this activity also supported the business contacts; when M. Bair was absent, H. Ahrens was his deputy. At the beginning of February the first German employee, Jakob Winckler from Stade and the future brother-in-law of his stepbrother Georg, started his work in the company.

He was not a merchant, rather a technician and at first H. Ahrens was not satisfied with his efficiency. He won the confidence of his bosses and besides other works he gradually realised the commissions of the company with the Japanese government.

In April Hinrich travelled via New York to Europe in order to strengthen and expand the business relations and he arrived in Falkenberg in June. During this period M. Bair managed the company in Japan and Hinrich completed orders from Japan and visited suppliers, recruited in a second partner, Eberhard Schmid, founded a branch office in Berlin and visited the World Exhibition in Vienna in ; only afterwards he returned to Japan again.

In the company could additionally conclud extensive commissions with the Japanese government; Hinrich Ahrens took over the complete management and now M. Bair travelled to Europe at the end of January Schmid was still staying there and together they transferred the branch office from Berlin to London. Ahrens managed the business from London as from until about to the midst of Already at that time serious differences occurred between Ahrens and Bair leading to separated commercial ways in the middle of Ahrens rather saw his chances in a business with private persons, whereas Bair adhered to the business with the Japanese government and following they continued their business separated under H.

Hinrich Ahrens kept, however, the representation for Krupp in Japan. Schmid also left the company at this time is not handed down. He also is not mentioned in the instructions of H. Ahrens' last will covering the company. At the beginning of Hinrich Ahrens decided to return to Europe to manage the company from London. On March 24, they arrived in Bremen, travelled on to London and took permanent residence here in summer although Hinrich often was on business trips and also had two longer stays in Japan.

In Japan Theodor Hake took over responsibilty for the import. As of also his brother Hermann Adolph Ahrens worked in Japan. When Hinrich stayed in Europe from to , he got acquainted with Hermina Mosle and he married her on August 17, in Bremen. She was born on April 25, in Bremen and was the daughter of Alexander Georg Mosle , a respected merchant, one of the founders of the Deutschen Bank and delegate of Bremen in the German Reichstag. Presumably his wife Hermina also cared for keeping private contacts with acquaintances.

They had four children: They had 3 daughters and 2 sons, marriage was divorced in In July urgent commissions forced him to go to Japan. He did not return home from this journey. He died of cholera in Yokohama on He was buried in the Yokohama Foreigners' Cemetery.

Hinrich left a considerable fortune allowing the family to continue the familiar lifestyle. If Hermina got married, however, once more, she would lose her annual inheritance as well as all other hereditary shares and their mutual children will be the beneficiaries. In November Hermina moved with her children from London to Leipzig; soon after she was closely befriended with Carl Eduard Melchers and they married on Together they had two additional daughters.

She died on Summary of the business activities of the company H. Retail Trade private persons, schools, smaller enterprises - teaching materials books, exercise books, maps, globes, technical equipments for schools, etc. Business with the Japanese Government state factories, ministries on a commission basis - representative of suppliers of the plants and mediator to the government chemicals, paints - Bayer, BASF; Machinery - Saxon Engineering Co.

Mezger, engineer for mining. Military Engineering Navy and War Ministry. Peil was cancelled, the company H. Ahrens in October Art Objets varnish goods, ceramics etc. Bing was married with the sister of M. Bair, the first export of S. Bing was executed through H.

The chemist Gottfried Wagener was closely connected with H. In the course of time, the export business is more and more reduced in favour of the import. According to Hinrich Ahrens last will he granted three of his employees in Japan - Theodor Hake, Emil Wismer and Georg Rudolph Mosle - the right to run on the company, however, at their own costs. These three seized the opportunity and re-named the company to H. It is much more an entirely new enterprise managed by "external persons" and marked by a continuous change in the corporate management.

Hake was the first of the partners to leave the company in In Georg Rudolph Mosle followed who established his own company in Yokohama and he was replaced by M. Hofmann also leave the company, further new employees come and go. Despite the changes in the management the company kept a trustworthy enterprise until the end of WW II and has been liquidated only by the American occupying power.

Die Ehe blieb kinderlos. Postcard addressed to Hans Ahrens in Bremen, posted Yokohama on March 17, , arriving April 24, , shortly before his departure to Japan. In he also went to Yokohama to work in the company of his uncle Georg Rudolph Mosle as he was also attracted by Japan.

In and they lived in Shanghai, he married Marcelle in Yokohama in The marriage remained childless. The card was written by his uncle Hermann Adolph Ahrens who in worked again in Yokohama. Die JD erfassen ihn aber ertmals als Mitarbeiter bei E. Er war Vertreter für - Bell's Abestos Co. The JD's list him, however, for the first time in as employee of E. In he joined R. In he founded his own business as merchant in Kobe 21, Harima-machi. As of his son David supported him; apart from some Japanese employees no further clerks were incorporated.

He was agent for - Bell's Abestos Co. Als er um das erste Mal nach Japan geschickt wurde, fand er bereits eine hochentwickelte Textilindustrie vor, die sich anschickte, bald die britische zu überflügeln. Er machte eine Ausbildung als technischer Zeichner, arbeitete dann einige Jahre als Mechaniker um dann wieder ins Zeichenbüro zurück zu kehren.

Lange Zeit war er Leiter dieser Abteilung. Offenbar war der Entwurf so gelungen, dass die Fertigstellung statt der veranschlagten vier nur etwas mehr als ein Jahr betrug. Aus diesen kleinen Anfängen entwickelte sich die japanische Baumwollindustrie rasch weiter. Als Antrieb diente Dampf, und bald wurde Beleuchtung eingeführt, um Schichtbetrieb zu ermöglichen. Ainlie war auch beteiligt am Entwurf der Baumwollfabriken von Kurashiki , 4. Ab etwa hielt er sich mehrmals als Berater für Platt in Japan auf und verbrachte dort insgesamt etwa fünf Jahre.

Die Arbeitsweise ist einheitlich". Der "Power Loom", erfunden von Toyoda Sakichi, machte es erstmals möglich, dass ein einziger Arbeiter mehrere Webstühle zugleich bedienen konnte.

Henry Ainlie starb nach sehr kurzer, aber schwerer Krankheit in seinem Haus in Oldham. Starting in with Kagoshima, he elaborated the plans for a number of Japanese cotton mills of ever increasing size. When he was, in about , sent to Japan for the first time, he encountered an already highly developed textile industry that was soon going to surpass Britain's.

He made an apprenticeship as technical draughtsman, working thereafter for a couple of years as a mechanic only to return to the drawing office again. Here, Ainlie was responsible for the design and layout of complete mills and for planning the arrangement of their machinery. For a long time he was head of the department. Ainlie's design for Kagoshima envisaged a small, but rather complex factory, comprising spinning machines of both the mule and the ring frame type and weaving looms as well.

Apparently the design was so successful that the completing of Kagoshima took only slightly more than a year instead of the planned four. The assembling in Japan was supervised by seven engineers from Platt, directed by Edward Z. From these small beginnings the Japanese cotton industry was developing rapidly. As power source, steam was used, and soon lighting was introduced to make shift work possible.

The Osaka mill was bigger and more effective than any other textile plant in Japan at that time and it was profitable. Ainlie also participated in planning the cotton factories of Kurashiki , 4, spindles , of Amagasaki , 9, spindles and of the Nippon Spinning Co. From about he stayed several times in Japan as an adviser for Platt, spending in Japan about five years in all. On March 15, he reported to his company management: In , a remarkable 87 percent of the 1,8 million spindles in Japanese mills came from Platt's of Oldham.

Towards the turn of the century, Japan opened the path to automation in the world's textile industry. The "power loom", invented in by Toyoda Sakichi, made it possible that one worker could operate more than one loom at a time.

Henry Ainlie died after a very short, but serious illness in his house at Oldham. Er wurde für eine militärische Laufbahn ausgebildet und diente u. Die Karten erschienen am Eröffnungstag, die Ausstellung dauerte vom Nach seiner Tätigkeit in Canada bekleidete er keine bedeutenden Ämter mehr, widmete sich nur noch öffentlichen Engagements, zog er sich aus der Öffentlichkeit zurück.

He was trained for a military career and served among others in Egypt and India In , he made a state visit to Japan and he even has one connection with Japanese philately. This card shows the two honorary presidents of the exhibition committee, Prince Fushimi Sadanaru at right and Prince Arthur of Connaught at left , issued on the day of opening. In the period of - Prince Albert was governor-general of Canada. After his years in Canada, he held no similar public offices but undertook a number of public engagements and withdrew from public life in Er kam im Auftrag der American Trading Co.

In he came to Japan by order of the American Trading Co. The envelope depicts significant trade goods of the American Trading Co. Er studierte Erziehungswissenschaften in Berlin, Breslau und Ulm, die er abschloss. Danach war er als Pfarrer im Staat Iowa tätig. Sein erster Einsatzort war Niigata, wo er neben der Missionstätigkeit Englisch lehrte. He studied education in Berlin, Breslau and Ulm and graduated in Afterwards he went to the USA, entered the theological college of Oberlin and graduated in From this school he also received the degree of Dr.

He arrived in Japan in July together with his wife, started his new post at first in Niigata teaching English besides missionary work. In he received his doctorate in theology from the Oberlin University. Postal Stationary Card, posted Kyoto Im darauffolgenden Jahr wurde er zum Bevollmächtigten Gesandten ernannt.

Alcock erreichte gegenüber der japanischen Behörde einen verstärkten Schutz der westlichen Ausländer vor japanischen radikalen Kräften.

Nachdem er sich aus dem Staatsdienst zurückgezogen hatte, war er Präsident der Königlich Geographischen Gesellschaft von - Er war der erste Ausländer, der den Fuji-san im Juli bestieg. In he was appointed consul at Foochow in China; in he was forwarded to Shanghai, where he especially superintended the establishment and laying out of the British settlement.

On 21 December he was appointed consul-general in Japan and he arrived at Nagasaki on He pressed for more protection of Westerners by the Japanese authorities against Japanese radical forces. He served until and afterwards he was transferred to Peking, where he represented the British government until , when he retired. Then he was president of the Royal Geographical Society from He was the first foreigner to climb Mount Fuji in July He was twice married. As author of several works he was also one of the first to awaken in England an interest in Japanese art.

Ankunft in Yokohama Alexeiff; arrival in Yokohama on September 19, In he was appointed financial adviser to the Korean Empire and he worked there to Er war bis leitender Direktor dieser Firma.

He acted as managing director to In he founded his own company operating under Geo. In der Kunstakademie Karlsruhe nahm er Unterricht u. In den Jahren und diente er bei der Marine in Kiel. Es folgten weitere erfolgreiche Mappen und illustrierte Bücher, u. Dort lebte er viele Jahre, reiste aber auch in mehrere andere Ländern der Erde mit längeren Aufenthalten, weilte er in Japan.

Seinen Lebensunterhalt verdiente er vor allem durch Porträts. Er starb einige Monate nach seiner Rückkehr nach DE. Allers war ein Naturalist. Er zeichnete seine Motive sehr realistisch, ohne dabei eigene Gefühle einzuarbeiten.

Trotzdem stellte er in seinen Werken auch Probleme dar, wie z. Die wesentlichen Themen seiner Arbeiten waren: Club Eintracht - Reiseberichte, z. Rund um die Welt - Darstellung bedeutender Persönlichkeiten, z. Allers while staying in Japan from a neighbor of Karlsruhe, posted on March 15, , arriving Tokio April 24, condoling to the death of his mother. In and he served in the German Navy in Kiel. Allers became well-known when he published his collection of prints "Club Eintracht" in Several other prosperous books and collections of prints followed, among others on Bismarck, thus, at the beginning of the s he was able to purchase a house in Karlsruhe and in a villa on Capri.

He lived there for many years, but also travelled to many countries of the world, in he stayed in Japan. In autumn he was accused by some Italian newspapers of homosexuality and pederasty. He travelled through many countries, staying some time in New Zealand, Samoa, and Australia, now painting under the pseudonym "W. His living he earned above all by making portraits of wealthy people. He died in some months after his return to Germany.

Allers was a naturalist. His drawings are very realistic without involving personal emotions. All the same he also demonstrates in his works existing problems, such as social contrasts. His chief subjects of his works were: Club Eintracht - Travel reports, e. Around the World - Representation of important personalities, e. ALT William John - Er liess sich im britischen Konsulat von Nagasaki am Innerhalb von zwei Jahren festigte und entwickelte er die Firma zu einem der erfolgreichsten Unternehmen, das einen stattlichen Gewinn durch den Handel mit Tee, Meeres-Produkten, Schiffen, Waffen etc.

Sein früher ökonomischer Erfolg zeigt sich auch durch die Verpflichtung des schottichen Schiffbauer James Mitchell zum Bau einer Yacht im Frühjahr , der feierliche Stapellauf der Phantom fand am Morgen des Im Juni wurde er einer von drei Mitgliedern eines Kommittee zur Leitung der neuen Handels-Kammer und im Februar des folgenden Jahres wurde er einer von den drei Mitgliedern der Stadtverwaltung. Alt war eine treibende Kraft. Sein erster Partner war Herbert M.

Wright , dann kamen H. Simpson , Walter M. Norton und John R. Das Ehepaar fuhr dann weiter nach Nagasaki. Die Ausgabe The Nagasaki Express vom Das Haus wurde später für die unterschiedlichsten Zwecke verwendet, z.

Abercrombie nutzte es auch als Konsulat, etc. Die ersten 4 Kinder wurden in Japan geboren, die anderen in GB. Sie lebten hier nur 18 Monate und zogen dann in die Ausländersiedlung von Yokohama. Während seiner letzten Jahre leidete er an Lungenproblemen und er kaufte eine Villa in Rapallo, Italien, wo die Familie nahezu jeden Winter und Frühling verbrachte. Bald darauf zogen sie nach London und kauften ein Haus in Kensington.

Elisabeth lebte bis zu ihrem Tod weiter in London, sie starb dort He registered with the British Consulate in Nagasaki on January 6, as a general commission agent. From January 1, the business was conducted under the name of W. His early financial success is indicated by commissioning Scottish shipbuilder James Mitchell to construct a yacht in the spring of , the launching ceremony of the Phantom took place on the morning of From early on, Alt was an active member in governing the foreign community at Nagasaki.

In June he was appointed one of three members of a committee to head the newly created Chamber of Commerce, and in February of the following year he was elected one of three original members of the Municipal Council. As early as the summer of , a social organization called the Nagasaki Club had been formed by members primarily British of the foreign settlement, and W. Alt was an impelling power.

By January , rules for the Club had been settled and by the end of the year, a permanent building for the Club had been erected at No. The original trustees were W. His original partner was Herbert M. Wright , then came H. Norton , and John R. When Alt left Nagasaki for Osaka in , Norton also left the firm. He was assisted by Frederick Hellyer, a nephew of Alt who had come to Nagasaki in to work for the company. After completing his work in England, William Alt returned to Australia, where he and Elisabeth were married at Adelaide on September 15, The couple then proceeded to Nagasaki.

He hired Japanese master carpenter Koyama Hideyoshi, who had already built the Glover House, to construct a huge private residence high upon the hill of Minamiyamate overlooking the harbor at Nos. The issue of The Nagasaki Express dated The house was later used for the most different purposes, e.

Abercrombie also used it as his consulate, etc. Partly damaged by the atomic bomb explosion, the Alt House was rented out after the war and served as a makeshift apartment block for as many as six families until finally being sold to Nagasaki City in , refurbished and incorporated into the new Glover Garden in September as one of the great tourist attractions.

William and Elisabeth Alt had eight children, their first daughter Mabel was born in Nagasaki in - altogether there were six daughters and two sons. The first four children were born in Japan and the remaining ones in GB. They stayed only eighteen months before moving on to the settlement of Yokohama.

Thus in William Alt left Japan, never to return, carrying riches gleaned from trade and one of the finest collections of Japanese art ever to reach British shores. The Alt family settled in a mansion in Surrey, near Chertsey, and William spent the rest of his life in affluent semi-retirement.

During his latter years he suffered from bronchial troubles and bought a villa at Rapallo, Italy, where the Alt family spent nearly every winter and spring. William died there in at the age of 68 and the villa was sold shortly after William's death in November Soon after they moved to London and purchased a house in Kensington. Elisabeth continued to live in London until she died there in Ausgabe — Issue of Oben mittig über beide Marken ist das Ringer Haus mit Rosen.

Unten links auf der Marke ist das Alt Haus mit Hortensien. Centered at top across both stamps is Ringer House with roses. Below it on the left stamp is Alt House with hydrangeas. Er war von Beruf Kapitän und stammte aus Norwegen. Er heiratete Catherine Miller, Tochter von G. Miller , geboren in Liverpool.

Miller, wohnhaft in Yokohama Bluff gelistet; von bis wohnten sie in Yokohama Im folgenden Jahr jedoch wird sie als Resident in Osaka 16 aufgeführt, wo sie bis wohnt; von bis wohnt sie in Kobe, 34, Nakayamate-dori, Ni-chome.

Andersen ohne Ehemann, der vermutlich in diesem Jahr verstarb. In dieser Ehe gab es zwei Töchter: Nach dem Tod von Kapitän C. Andersen, heiratete Catherine Andersen geb. Miller Emil Junker etwa um Sie starb im Urlaub in Dresden am His profession was Captain coming from Norway. He married Catherine Miller, daughter of G. Miller , born in in Liverpool. Andersen moved in to Kobe A where she founded a small firm as Milliner and Dressmaker. In the next year, however, she is listed only as resident in Osaka 16 staying there until and from until in 34, Nakayamate-dori, Ni-chome, Kobe.

In and both are listed at 37, Yamamoto-dori, Kobe. In she is listed at the same place but without husband, most surely he died in that year. There were 2 daughters: Karen died not long after , daughter father returned to Japan to live with her grandmother Catherine Junker in Tokyo.

After the death of Captain C. She died in Dresden on Er kam zusammen mit Ernest W. Die Firma entwickelte sich kontinuierlich weiter und war auch noch auf dem japanischen Markt an gleicher Anschrift.

He came to Japan together with Ernest W. The company developed continuously and in they acted still on the Japanese market at the same location. John's College von Cambridge. Andrews betrieb die Institution bis Mai , als er bat, aus gesundheitlichen Gründen nach Hakodate versetzt zu werden. Walter Thornton, geboren Reverend Andrews wirkte in Hakodate von bis , als er sich wegen der Krankheit seiner Frau zurückzog.

Louisa Andrews, die Schwester von Walter, kam etwa nach Hakodate, um die Familie zu unterstützen. Walter Andrews beendete seine Tätigkeit und ging nach GB zurück. Seine Frau Helen starb am 7. März in Tonbridge, Kent, England. Leonards in Sussex, wo er im Alter von achtzig Jahren starb. Ganzsachen-Karte von Hakodate, Aufgabe John's College, Cambridge in Andrews operated the institution until May when he asked to be transferred to Hakodate for health reasons.

While in Nagasaki, Andrews and his wife Helen Patterson had two children: Louisa Andrews, sister of Walter Andrews, came to Hakodate about in in order to assist the family; she married John Batchelor in He came back to Hakodate in Walter Andrews retired in when he left Japan for GB. Postal Stationary Card from Hakodate, posted Auf belgischer Seite wurde er von August t'Kint de Roodenbeek verhandelt und unterzeichnet, dem ersten belgischen Diplomaten, der Japan nach der Öffnung des Landes besuchte.

Auf der Basis dieses bilateralen Vertrags wurde am Dieses Konsulat wurde geschlossen. Er kam im November nach Yokohama. Danach diente er seinem Land in verschiedenen Hauptstädten Europas und Amerikas in verschiedenen Funktionen. Trotz seines straffen Zeitplans war er auch sehr an Pferderennen interessiert und er war Mitglied im Yokohama Club für Pferderennsport und von bis Mitglied des Komitees.

Er war verheiratet und seine Frau Eleanora Mary d'Anethan begleitete ihn. Sunday 9 February -- citius, altius, fortius. Wow and again wow!

The performances at the Sochi Olympics are truly breathtaking. Is there anything as aesthetic as figure skating? But all three were divine. So too the Italians and the Japanese who came in 4th and 5th. The girl boarders did absolutely amazing things, and the American truly deserved the gold. There is so much talent out there in the world -- and we are the privileged ones who can admire it. It's the turn for the Presidency of the Centre Suisse romand -- so it's my baby. Friday 7 January -- Opening of the Sochi winter Olympics.

The ethereal soprano Anna Netrebko performed the Olympic anthem-- for me that was the best moment of the evening! Lectured at GSD in the afternoon: This is a wonderful example for the world and it will bear fruit. Wednesday 29 January --It is snowing. I do the induction for the new students at the Geneva School of Diplomacy. I spoke on the five Special Procedures mandates that should be engaged to address the multiple violations.

Aline Dedeyan performed her funny sketch "tax evasion". We celebrated the th anniversary of the birth of the American poet William Stafford, and the th anniversary of the birth of Richard Strauss, who was not only a superlative composer, conductor and orchestrator but a widely read intellectual with high literary sensitivity and judgment, who used the best writers of the day as his librettists, including Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Stefan Zweig, and put to music poems by Hermann Hesse and Joseph von Eichendorff.

Several of our amateur poets paid tribute to Nelson Mandela and the multiple links between joie de vivre , diversity, pluralism, freedom of opinion, literature, culture, mutual respect and peace.

Lovely day of skiing and photographing "witches" in all sorts of costumes sweeping down the slopes. Our favourite black piste was closed, but the blacks 2, 3 and 14 were open and garanteed a glorious adrenalin rush. Hipolyte Church followed by vin chaud. What a delight to hear something I did not even know existed! Must buy the cd! Water temperature around 15 centigrade. La promotion d'un ordre international democratique et equitable: The room was packed to capacity -- in any event well over in the audience.

Gave an interview to UN radio in NY. Spoke at a panel on self-determination. Issued a press release. I had spoken with him on a Saturday afternoon at the Palais Wilson a few weeks before that. Our son Stefan would have been 17 years old. God giveth, God taketh away. We count our blessings and accept destiny as it comes, taking comfort in Reinhold Niebuhr's prayer: God, give us grace to accept with serenity the things that cannot be changed, courage to change the things which should be changed, and the wisdom to distinguish the one from the other.

Let's pray for an end to the violence. A whistleblower may be a hero and serve democracy by demanding accountability and transparency from governments -- but it is tough going. We did the 4-hour hike up and down the Massaschlucht, crossing the ravine down by Wassen and then taking the steep climb to Hegdorn at the end.. I participated in the workshop on the post development agenda, Carla in the workshop on enforcement mechanisms and remedies for victims.

Pity that the mise-en-scene was banal to bad. I am second from the right. You come out of the cinema singing Rigoletto! A world of new and wonderful books. I gave a lecture on Rilke. Tuesday 30 April - Oranje Boven! Lang leve Koning Willem Alexander! Vandag is de Troonwisseling! Lang leve de oude Koningin Beatrix. Wij trinken natuurlijk Oranjebitter. Lots of bravado without unnecessary pathos.

Sunday 31 March -- Urbi et Orbi -- Peace and reconciliation, respect for God's Creation, reject greed and short-term advantage. Saturday 23 March -- a year ago I was appointed Independent Expert by the Human Rights Council -- it has been an exciting year and I have met splendid people. Carla and I hit the slopes again, this time in the Monts Jura chain. A remarkably nice day of skiing , even if the sky was grey. Friday 22 March -- to mark World Water Day eight UN rapporteurs, including myself, issued a press release stressing that water is a human right, not a commodity.

The UN Library and Ex Tempore did a successful poetry reading to conjure up the good spirits -- we were seven readers before an audience of 32, followed by a Haiku workshop. Tuesday 19 March -- feast of St. Joseph -- and the inaugural Mass of Pope Franciscus in Rome. Very touching homily -- made me think of the Sermon on the Mount, simple, straight-forward, comforting.

Monday 18 March -- snow galore over Geneva. Winter does not want to go. This is my second tour of duty. Friday 15 March - UN panel on Iraq and reparation to victims of gross violations of human rights. Wednesday 13 March - Habemus Papam! As Archbishop of Buenos Aires he once said with regard to the political leaders of his country: I would add, legitimacy depends on truth, sincerity and consent of the governed.

Tuesday 12 March - meeting with working group on enforced disappearances; meeting with Kofi Annan Foundation. Monday 11 March - spoke in two side-events at the Council - on the human right to peace, and on the world constitutional court. Sunday 10 March -- the two tortoises woke up probably already while I was in the UK after four and a half months of hibernation -- looking around, curious as ever.

Washed them, gave them water and dandelion leaves. Haec dies quam fecit Dominus: They are still somewhat groggy. Saturday 9 March - lecture on my mandate at the University of Nottingham.

Thursday 7 March - lecture on freedom of expression at Middlesex University. We will miss him. From the balcony of Castel Gandolfo to the crowds gathered in the piazza below, his final greeting to the faithful was humble and profoundly human, in that benevolent style we have learned to appreciate over the past eight years: Thursday 28 February -- spoke at two United Nations panels, one on violence against women, the other on the crisis affecting the Mujahedin refugees in Camps Ashraf and Liberty.

Wednesday 27 February -- the diplomat, philosopher and human rights activist Sephan Hessel passed away at the age of I met him years ago and he left an enduring impression. Tuesday 26 February -- panel on public diplomacy and international cooperation. Wednesday 20 February -- my oral statement on the human right to peace , delivered at the Council, was particularly well received by the non-governmental organizations. Glorious powder at the Valais station of Laucheralp in the legendary Lötschenthal.

More than six hours of practically non-stop skiing. Superlative skiing at the French station of Monts Jura , barely 20 minutes away from the house. On Thursday 7 February I spoke at the UN open-ended consultation on the human right to peace, focusing on the justiciability of the various components of the right to peace and recalling that even economic, social and cultural rights are now justiciable thanks to the ratification of the Optional Protocol to ICESCR.

The Government of Uruguay deposited the 10th instrument of ratification of the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, which will duly enter into force on 5 May Finally the justiciability of economic, social and culural rights is being recognized.

We fought for it when I was a UN staffer, and now it has become a reality. Wonderful black pistes Kandahar and red Fontaines and Mur des Epines.

Lots of skiiers doing telemark -- an elegant, but difficult discipline! We duly celebrated Robert Burns' th birthday, and anticipated the centennial of the birth of Albert Camus 7 November In spite of the icy roads, 65 persons showed up and 15 performed, including Aline Dedeyan, whose sketch was very original and a pure delight. For more pictures see www. Fine staging and light effects. Glorious skiing in Belalp. Here a picture on Friday morning, just before the session of the Third Committee opened.

I actually enjoyed presenting my report , and the States were kind enough with their comments. Here a picture with the special rapporteur on the protection of human rights while countering terrorism, Ben Emmerson. USG Jan Eliasson spent some time at the stand and shared with me some thoughts by Dag Hammarsksjold, which he repeated in his inspired statement at Victoria Hall the same evening.

I spoke on the panel on democratization on 1 October. Here my oral statement. Good comments by the ngo community. Issued my third press release. Wrote article for the October issue of the UN Special concerning this wonderful transfrontier exhibition and comparing it with the exhibit in Belalp.

In the afternoon presented my report to the Human Rights Council. Here the statement , and the press release. Gave interview on my mandate. Ich kijk praktisch nooit naar televisie. Maar ik vind dit programma echt leuk. My report to the Human Rights Council is on the web. I'm scheduled to present it on 12 September. On 16 July my first report to the Human Rights Council went to the editors and translators. On 10 July we held an informal consultation with civil society at the Palais Wilson to brainstorm on the scope and potential of my UN mandate.

I derived good insights that will be reflected on my report. His ideas on the notion of the Westphalian state, the nature of sovereignty, war, the condition of the soldier and prisoner of war status certainly influenced -- for the better -- the development of international humanitarian law.

Saturday 7 July was a perfect day for cycling -- thus, bikes on top of the car, drove to the Lac des Rousses in France, next to the town of La Cure, cycled the 60 km around the lake of Rousses and the Lac de Joux Switzerland and swam in both.

On Wednesday 4 July I cooked and bottled 11 liters of jam. Our plum trees have been generous this year. Now I am harvesting for the slivovitz! Very alert students, clever questions, good atmosphere. The Geneva Book Fair on Apirl was a great success, this time dedicated to the th anniversary of the birth of Jean Jacques Rousseau. Here a photo at the stand of P. International, Centre Suisse romand, with J. My Guantanamo booklet lecture at the University of Trier, Institut für Rechtspolitik is now on the internet.

On Sunday 25 March, a glorious spring day with fruit trees blossoming in our garden -- and all around the countryside, we did our first barbeque of the season. Life can be so wonderful - if kept simple and genuine. The mandate has enormous potential and will require much reflection. My desire is to be a bridge between North-South, East-West, and to serve the cause of human rights by advancing those immanent principles of human dignity and human equality that make society work. We live in such a beautiful, rich planet that there is no excuse for extreme poverty, structural violence, needless conflict and war.

Real - not just virtual - democracy can be achieved, but we must believe in the rule of law, defend it and persevere. Humanity needs more justice, mutual respect, patience, misericordia. The mandate was created by the Council on 29 September Si vis pacem, cole justitiam. Nuevos Derechos del Hombre just put up the notice on their site.

I lisened to one of my favourite pieces -- Anton Bruckner's Te Deum laudamus. It is high time to recognize the UN Charter as the constitution of all of humanity and the ICJ as the world constitutional court! Let's have too an international court of human rights. On Tuesday 13 March fruitful UN panel on women's rights. Good audience -- and I even gave a TV interview afterwards. Diva International reported on the event. Post-carneval abstinence is upon us, always an opportunity to take stock and slow down a bit.

Here a meditation on Easter and a meditation on the temple and us. The producton by Richard Jones and costumes by Antony McDonald were fascinating in a surrealistic way. It's tremendous fun to discover these forgotten gems. On Friday evening 20 January we held the 16th annual Ex Tempore literary salon, dedicated to the th anniversary of the birth of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, but this time with only 47 participants, since the weather was rather inclement.

Carla and I had roast goose for Christmas. The Gänseschmalz is wonderful for omelettes. There is something very genuine about climbing on an olive tree and plucking olives one by one. The olive oil we obtain from the old-fashioned mill is more flavourful than any other we have ever poured on decades of salads. Which brings me to a new year's resolution: Since there were only three of us tenors this year, I could use my lungs more generously.

But the choir director mostly wants piano or even pianissimo! On Thursday 8 December Earth Focus held its annual human rights conference. Among other things, we introduced our new website for the International Bill of Rights Association. A noted Libyan author in exile -- Ibrahim Al Koni -- was our guest, and the evening was intellectually challenging.

Let us hope that the crime of silence will be broken and that the UN will take effective action to protect the innocent civilians in the camp.

If R2P means anything, here is a good place to apply it. Once again the tenors are in the minority, which gives me the opportunity to sing louder. DI held ist constitutive assembly in Geneva. The October issue of the UN Special published my short piece on the alpine horn, "Le cor des alpes, un instrument de paix.

On Saturday 22 October Carla and I did a lovely hike through the vineyards near Aubonne, collected over a hundred fresh walnuts and chestnuts and I even took a final Indian-summer swim in lake Geneva. It was wonderfully sunny and unseasonably warm-- both air and water temperature were around degrees. The beach was deliciously deserted. On Thursday 20 October the International Parliamentary Union held a conference with Parlamentarians from all over the world.

I spoke on the links between civil and political rights and the implementation of the right to development. On Monday 10 October, on the occasion of the commemoration of the World Day Against the Death Penalty, I spoke at the Place des Nations at a large gathering of the relatives of refugees at Camp Ashraf in Irak, who have every reason to fear another massacre. I noted the considerable increase in the number of death sentences and executions in Iran, which pose a grave threat to all opposition leaders and their families.

Such religious services are often more authentic than official worship, and the tradition goes back to early Christian times, when lay Christian communities met to meditate, discuss, commune. It was beautiful and breathed life. Volume XXII is about to come out. On Wednesday 5 October, after my morning lecture and advising a master's student on her thesis, Carla and I "stole" one last swim in the lake.

Water temperature was 18 degrees, air temperature Not bad for beginning of October. But a cold front is approaching. There we were, looking at the water and munching on Noah's bagels from San Francisco.

We are undecided whether the pumpkin or the Asiago bagels are the best. Just learned that my correspondence with Golo Mann is in the Schweizerisches Literaturarchiv, http: Besides visiting him at home in Kilchberg, we had been together on ZDF discussing the fallacious "collective guilt" doctrine, http: I spoke on the work of the International Bill of Rights Association, made my introductory remarks in Russian and even took some of the questions in Russian.

Nice kids -- bright eyed, bushy tailed. It's UN panel time again. Be glad when when UN Council is over. It's Indian Summer and the air temperature was 25 degrees, water temperature 17 degrees. We tried out both lakes! I focused on the issue of "legal status" of the residents of Ashraf and on the inacceptable notion of "legal black holes". As Baruch Spinoza observed in his Ethics , "nature abhors a vacuum". The event was also reported in the German-language press.

On Monday 8 August I spoke 7 minutes I only had the right to 4 minutes, but the chair did not cut me off! On Sunday 7 August I was one of the three panelists in the expert consultation on the human right to peace, held at the John Knox Centre. We are realy moving ahead! Our President is Prof. Particularly important is paragraph The Covenant does not permit general prohibition of expressions of an erroneous opinion or an incorrect interpretation of past events. Restrictions on the right of freedom of opinion should never be imposed and, with regard to freedom of expression they should not go beyond what is permitted in paragraph 3 or required under article See also an earlier article by Henrik R.

Clausen, which cites my work: On Monday 4 July I spoke to a large group of Mujaheedins and their families demonstrating at the Place des Nations on "Ashraf et le crime du silence" just in front of the United Nations building. It is a matter of ethics and intellectual honesty to serve the "unsung victims". I spoke about the maquiladoras. Elvira Dominguez Redondo, Dr. Nadia Bernaz, and Barrister Majid Tramboo.

On Monday 16 May I delivered a paper at a closed UN side event, a consultation on the human right to peace, with the participation of the Western and Eastern European groups of the Human Rights Council. Indeed, dulce bellum inexpertis -- war is only attractive to the unexperienced attributed to Erasmus of Rotterdam.

The Badische Zeitung published a nice report on 9 May at page Zeit-Fragen published excerpts of my Laudatio. Let's say with Kant: On 6 May my interview on "Völkermord als Staatsgeheimnis" was published in the Preussischen Allgemeine Zeitung, on page It was reasonably well attended some 25 people, PEN members and non-members.

Literature is so much nicer than politics! The reviewer highlights the inter-disciplinary methodology of the book. I guess that international lawyers will read the review -- but how many historians? On Wednesday 20 April I spoke on a panel held at the Club de la Presse on the international criminal aspects of the Einsatzgruppen-like actions of the Iraqui army against the Ashraf refugees. On Saturday 16 April I participated on a panel on the Iraqui massacre against the Aschraf refugees, Iranian Mujaheidins held at a camp in Irak, formerly under the protection of the U.

On 8 April Iraqi soldiers attacked the refugee camp, killed 34 and wounded more than refugees. Surely a crime against humanity, a grave breach of the 4th Geneva Convention of -- disgraceful and yet largely unreported. Here again we recognize the phenomenon of victims of crime -- and victims of silence. More generally we are confronted with the inhumanity of silence and indifference -- because these victims are not deemed politically correct. We adopted a declaration.

I could not fly to the University of Toronto to accept the award, but my acceptance speech was read out. Aber letztlich geht es ihm um die Frage, ob es eine Kollektivschuld der Deutschen für die Judenmorde gab. Das würde voraussetzen, dass zumindest der 'normale' Staatsbürger von diesen Vorgängen etwas gewusst habe, und zwar nicht nur durch Andeutungen und Flüsterinformationen, sondern durch klare Kenntnisse. Dass eine solche Kenntnis nicht vorhanden war, belegt der Autor in seinem Buch durch Heranziehung solider Informationen, auch aus den Nürnberger Prozesssen, von Dokumenten und Aussagen von Zeitzeugen.

Weitere Versuche, eine Kollektivschuld der Deutschen zu belegen, werden and er Arbeit des Autors nicht vorbeikommen The UN Human Rights Council was in session in March and the non governmental organizations put up some of the most interesting panels.





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